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June 2018



Moral Virtues

Are there any other virtues besides the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity? Besides the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity, there are other virtues, called moral virtues.

These virtues are called moral virtues because they dispose us to lead moral, or good lives, by aiding us to treat persons and things in the right way, that is, according to the will of God. Moral virtues are opposed to the capital sins.

For example, humility is opposed to pride; liberality is opposed to avarice; chastity is opposed to lust; meekness and patience are opposed to anger; temperance is opposed to gluttony; brotherly love is opposed to envy: and zeal and diligence in what is good are opposed to sloth.

Moral virtues are an outgrowth and completion of the theological virtues. The theological virtues perfect our interior being; the moral virtues perfect our exterior. If we sincerely strive after these virtues, we are on the road to perfection.

The theological virtues affect our relations with God; the moral virtues affect our relations with our neighbour and our own selves. For example, faith makes us believe in the existence of God. Temperance makes us regulate our appetites.

Which are the chief moral virtues?  The chief moral virtues are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance; these are called cardinal virtues.

All other moral virtues spring from the cardinal virtues. These are called cardinal from cardo, the Latin word for hinge, because all our moral actions turn on them as a door turns upon its hinges. All other moral virtues depend on them.

How do prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance dispose us to lead good lives? Prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance dispose us to lead good lives, as indicated below:

Prudence disposes us in all circumstances to form right judgments about what we must do or not do.-It teaches us when and how to act in matters relating to our eternal salvation. Prudence perfects the intelligence, which is the power of forming judgments; for this virtue, knowledge and experience are important.

Prudence shows us how to leave earthly things in order to earn riches for eternity. It is the eye of the soul, for it tells us what is good and what is evil. It is like a compass that directs our course in life. It is opposed to worldly wisdom.

"Be prudent therefore and watchful in prayers" (1 Pet. 4:7). Prudence is a virtue of the understanding.

Justice disposes us to give everyone what belongs to him.-It teaches us to give what is due to God and to man. It makes us willing to live according to the commandments. Justice perfects the will and safeguards the rights of man: his right to life, freedom, honour, good name, sanctity of the home, and external possessions.

The just man is an upright man. He gives to everyone his due: he gives God worship; the authorities, obedience; his subordinates, rewards and punishments; and his equals, brotherly love. "Render to all men whatever is their due; tribute to whom tribute is due; taxes to whom taxes are due; fear to whom fear is due; honour to whom honour is due" (Rom. 13:7).

Fortitude disposes us to do what is good in spite of any difficulty.-It gives us strength to do good and avoid evil in spite of all obstacles and afflictions.

We possess fortitude when we are not hindered by ridicule, threats, or persecution from doing what is right; when we are ready, if necessary, to suffer death. The greatest fortitude is shown by bearing great suffering rather than undertaking great works. No saint was ever a coward. The martyrs had fortitude.

Temperance disposes us to control our desires and to use rightly the things which please our senses.-It regulates our judgment and passions, so that we may make use of temporal things only in so far as they are necessary for our eternal salvation. We have temperance when we eat and drink only what is necessary to sustain life, preserve health, and fulfil our duties.

We should strive to be like St. Francis of Sales, who said: "I desire very little, and that little I desire but little." However, temperance does not consist in refusing or denying ourselves what is necessary, thus unfitting ourselves for good works.

Which are some of the other moral virtues? Filial piety and patriotism, which dispose us to honour, love, and respect our parents and our country. It is, however, no virtue but a sin if we are so prejudiced in favour of our parents that we find no good in others; or if we are so "patriotic" that we see no good in other nations.

The division and mutual antagonisms of nations and peoples in which certain ones profess to find themselves as "superior" can certainly not please God; from

them come war and revenge. God is Father of all nations and peoples, without exception.

Obedience, which disposes us to do the will of our superiors. Obedience consists not only in doing what is commanded by our superior, but in being willing to do what is commanded. One who grumbles and murmurs while doing what his mother asks him to do is not obedient.

Obedience is a virtue only when one subjects his will to that of another for God's sake, not for material or natural motives. Christ is the model of obedience, for He obeyed completely and lovingly, even to the death of the Cross. "An obedient man shall speak of victory" (Prov. 21:28).

Veracity, which disposes us to tell the truth.

We should always be truthful, as children of God, Who is Truth itself. Veracity, however, does not require us to reveal secrets, or to reply to questions about which the questioner has no right to ask. In cases such as these, we should either remain silent, or return an evasive answer. "Wherefore, put away lying, and speak truth each one with his neighbor, because we are members of one another" (Eph. 4:25).

Patience, which disposes us to bear up under trials and difficulties.

In sickness and ill fortune, in the difficulties of our occupations, in our weaknesses, let us have serenity of mind, for the love of God: "And bear fruit in patience" (Luke 8:15). "Be patient in tribulation, persevering in prayer" (Rom. 12:12).

Besides these, there are many other moral virtues. Religion is the highest moral virtue, since it disposes us to offer to God the worship that is due Him. Religion is classed under the virtue of justice.






On Wednesday 13th June the Church celebrates the Feast of St. Anthony of Padua.

Saint Anthony was born Fernando Martins in Lisbon, Portugal. He was born into a wealthy family and by the age of fifteen asked to be sent to the Abbey of Santa Cruz in Coimbra, the then capital of Portugal. During his time in the Abbey, he learned theology and Latin.

Following his ordination to the priesthood, he was named guest master and was responsible for the abbey's hospitality. When Franciscan friars settled a small

hermitage outside Coimbra dedicated to Saint Anthony of Egypt, Fernando felt a longing to join them.

Fernando eventually received permission to leave the Abbey so he could join the new Franciscan Order. When he was admitted, he changed his name to Anthony.

Anthony then travelled to Morocco to spread God's truth, but became extremely sick and was returned to Portugal to recover. The return voyage was blown off-course and the party arrived in Sicily, from which they travelled to Tuscany. Anthony was assigned to the hermitage of San Paolo after local friars considered his health. As he recovered, Anthony spent his time praying and studying.

An undetermined amount of time later, Dominican friars came to visit the Franciscans and there was confusion over who would present the homily. The Dominicans were known for their preaching, thus the Franciscans assumed it was they who would provide a homilist, but the Dominicans assumed the Franciscans would provide one. It was then the head of the Franciscan hermitage asked Anthony to speak on whatever the Holy Spirit told him to speak of.

Though he tried to object, Anthony delivered an eloquent and moving homily that impressed both groups. Soon, news of his eloquence reached Francis of Assisi, who held a strong distrust of the brotherhood's commitment to a life of poverty. However, in Anthony, he found a friend.

In 1224, Francis entrusted his friars' pursuits of studies to Anthony. Anthony had a book of psalms that contained notes and comments to help when teaching students and, in a time when a printing press was not yet invented, he greatly valued it.

When a novice decided to leave the hermitage, he stole Anthony's valuable book. When Anthony discovered it was missing, he prayed it would be found or returned to him. The thief did return the book and in an extra step returned to the Order as well.

The book is said to be preserved in the Franciscan friary in Bologna today.

Anthony occasionally taught at the universities of Montpellier and Toulouse in southern France, but he performed best in the role of a preacher.

So simple and resounding was his teaching of the Catholic Faith, most unlettered and the innocent could understand his messages. It is for this reason he was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Pius XII in 1946.

Once, when St. Anthony of Padua attempted to preach the true Gospel of the Catholic Church to heretics who would not listen to him, he went out and preached his message to the fish. This was not, as liberals and naturalists have tried to say, for the instruction of the fish, but rather for the glory of God, the delight of the angels, and the easing of his own heart. When critics saw the fish begin to gather, they realized they should also listen to what Anthony had to say.

He was only 36-years-old when he died and was canonized less than one year afterward by Pope Gregory IX. Upon exhumation some 336 years after his death, his body was found to be corrupted, yet his tongue was totally incorrupt, so perfect were the teachings that had been formed upon it.

He is typically depicted with a book and the Infant Child Jesus and is commonly referred to today as the "finder of lost articles." St Anthony is venerated all over the world as the Patron Saint for lost articles, and is credited with many miracles involving lost people, lost things and even lost spiritual goods.






Receiving Communion

May is the month in which children traditionally receive their first communion. This year first communion took place in N.S. Navegantes on 13th May.

As part of their first communion preparation the children learn how to receive communion and it is no harm for those whose first communion is a distant memory to refresh themselves on how to receive communion.

You may receive the Sacred Host either in your hand or on your tongue. The choice is yours.

If you intend to receive the Sacred Host in your hand, extend both hands palm upwards toward the minister, placing one hand directly on top of the other. You should do this as you approach the minister so that it is obvious to the minister that you wish to receive Communion in the hand.

The minister will hold the Sacred Host in front of you and say,   “The Body of Christ.” You respond by saying, “Amen.”   The minister will then place the Host on your open palm.

Do not take the Sacred Host out of the hand of the minister with your fingers.

An important liturgical principle is the communicant receives rather than takes Holy Communion.

Do not fail to respond “Amen” when the minister says “The Body of Christ.” Do not substitute another expression for it such as “Thank you.” The minister in saying “The Body of Christ” is making a declaration of faith about the nature of the Eucharist and the Church which you as the communicant must affirm with you “Amen” before you receive.

After receiving the Sacred Host in your hand, step aside and consume the Host immediately while facing the altar. Do not begin walking back to your seat before consuming the Host.






Did you know facts!!

Did you know11% of people are left handed.

Did you knowAugust has the highest percentage of births.

Did you know unless food is mixed with saliva you can't taste it.

Did you know the average person falls asleep in 7 minutes.

Did you know a bear has 42 teeth.

Did you know an ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain.

Did you know lemons contain more sugar than strawberries.

Did you know 8% of people have an extra rib.

Did you know 85% of plant life is found in the ocean.

Did you know rabbits like licorice.

Did you know the Hawaiian alphabet has 13 letters.

Did you know 'Topolino' is the name for Mickey Mouse Italy.

Did you know a lobsters blood is colourless but when exposed to oxygen it turns blue.

Did you know armadillos have 4 babies at a time and are all the same sex.

Did you know reindeer like bananas.

Did you know the longest recorded flight of a chicken was 13 seconds.

Did you know birds need gravity to swallow.

Did you know the most commonly used letter in the alphabet is E.

Did you know the 3 most common languages in the world are Mandarin Chinese, Spanish and English.

Did you know the first letters of the months July through to November spell JASON.

Did you know a cat has 32 muscles in each ear.

Did you know Switzerland eats the most chocolate equating to 10 kilos per person per year.

Did you know each time you see a full moon you always see the same side.





Maybe you are asking where this house of God is to be sought, and where it may be found. God’s house is the whole world, God’s house is the Catholic Church; God’s house is also every faithful soul. But God inhabits the world in one way, the Church in another, and every faithful soul in yet a third. He is in the world as ruler of his kingdom; he is in the Church as head of the family in his own home; he is in the soul as the bridegroom in the wedding chamber.

Hugh of St. Victor (1096-1141)

German monk and writer